GRCh38 · COSMIC v92


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Germline and somatic mutations in patients with multiple primary melanomas: a next generation sequencing study.
Paper ID
Casula M, Paliogiannis P, Ayala F, De Giorgi V, Stanganelli I, Mandalà M, Colombino M, Manca A, Sini MC, Caracò C, Ascierto PA, Satta RR, Melanoma Unit of Sassari (MUS), Lissia A, Cossu A, Palmieri G and Italian Melanoma Intergroup (IMI)
Unit of Cancer Genetics, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry (ICB), National Research Council (CNR), Traversa La Crucca 3, Baldinca Li Punti, 07100, Sassari, Italy.
BMC cancer, 2019;19(1):772
ISSN: 1471-2407
PMID: 31382929 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
Introduction: Multiple primary melanomas (MPM) occur up to 8% of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). They are often sporadic harbouring several somatic mutations, but also familial cases harbouring a CDKN2A germline mutation have been describe in Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, the distribution patterns and the impact of known and unknown germline and somatic mutations in patients with MPM from Italy.One-hundred and two MPM patients were enrolled for germline mutation analysis, and five patients with at least four MPMs were identified for somatic mutation analysis. The demographic, pathologic and clinical features were retrieved from medical records. Molecular analysis for both germline and somatic mutations was performed in genomic DNA from peripheral blood and tissue samples, respectively, through a next generation sequencing approach, using a specific multiple-gene panel constructed by the Italian Melanoma Intergroup for somatic analysis and a commercial cancer hotspot panel for somatic analysis.Results: CDKN2A mutations were detected in 6/16 (37.5%) and 3/86 (3.5%) MPM cases with and without family history for melanoma, respectively. Furthermore, multiple MC1R and, to a lesser extent, ATM variants have been identified. BAP1 variants were found only in MPM patients from southern Italy. The most frequent somatic variants were the pathogenic BRAF<sup>V600E</sup> and TP53, followed by KIT, PIK3CA, KDR, and NRAS. Single APC, ERBB4, MET, JAK3 and other variants with unknown function were also detected.Conclusions: CDNK2A mutation is the most relevant susceptibility mutation in Italian patients with MPM, especially those with a family history for CMM. The prevalence of this mutation and other sequence variants identified in this study varies among specific sub-populations. Furthermore, some heterogeneity in driver somatic mutations between sporadic MPMs has been observed, as well as in a number of associated sequence variants the clinical impact of which needs to be further elucidated.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Non-Mutant Genes Gene Id (COSG)


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows only high value (numeric) copy number data. Copy number segments are excluded if the total copy number and minor allele values are unknown.

Click here to include all copy number data. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)