GRCh38 · COSMIC v91


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Genomic Characterization of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Relapsing After Chemotherapy.
Paper ID
Necchi A, Bratslavsky G, Corona RJ, Chung JH, Millis SZ, Elvin JA, Vergilio JA, Suh J, Ramkissoon S, Severson E, Daniel S, Killian JK, Ali SM, Schrock AB, Reddy P, Miller VA, Welsh A, Gay LM and Ross JS
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:
European urology focus, 2018
ISSN: 2405-4569
PMID: 30025711 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
Background: Although both seminomatous and nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) have favorable outcomes with chemotherapy, a subset is chemorefractory, and novel therapeutic options are needed.Objective: To molecularly characterize chemotherapy-refractory TGCTs.Archival tissues from 107 chemotherapy-treated and relapsed TGCT patients (23 seminomas; 84 nonseminomas) underwent hybrid-capture-based genomic profiling to evaluate four classes of genomic alterations (GAs). Tumor mutational burden (TMB) and microsatellite instability (MSI) were also measured.Intervention: Genomic profiling on tumor samples from chemotherapy-refractory TGCTs.Descriptive analyses and differences between seminoma and nonseminoma subgroups were reported.The mean GA/tumor was 2.9 for seminomas and 4.0 for nonseminomas (p=0.04). KRAS alterations (mainly amplifications) were the most common GAs at the single-gene level (47.8% of seminomas and 51.2% of nonseminomas). RAS-RAF pathway (56.5% vs 52.3%) and cell-cycle pathway (52.2% vs 56.0%) were the most common GA classes in seminomas and nonseminomas, respectively. Receptor tyrosine kinase pathway and PI3K pathway GAs were more frequent in seminomas (p=0.02). Median TMB was 1.8 mutations/Mb for seminomas and 2.7 mutations/Mb for nonseminomas (p=0.098), and MSI-high status was found in one nonseminoma only (1.2%). A lack of clinical outcome correlation is a limitation of the present analyses.Conclusions: In chemotherapy-refractory TGCTs, trials with agents targeting the KRAS pathway may be pursued due to the high frequency of KRAS GAs. Overall, the GAs found in refractory seminomas and nonseminomas differ significantly. Considering the frequency of high TMB or MSI-high status, immunotherapy may benefit a small subset of nonseminomas.Testicular cancers that are resistant to or relapse after standard chemotherapy may harbor genomic alterations that are potentially druggable, particularly in the clinical trial setting, and genomic profiling can guide clinical research and disclose therapeutic opportunities for these patients.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Non-Mutant Genes Gene Id (COSG)


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows only high value (numeric) copy number data. Copy number segments are excluded if the total copy number and minor allele values are unknown.

Click here to include all copy number data. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)