GRCh38 · COSMIC v91


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Spatial and temporal clonal evolution of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Paper ID
Dong LQ, Shi Y, Ma LJ, Yang LX, Wang XY, Zhang S, Wang ZC, Duan M, Zhang Z, Liu LZ, Zheng BH, Ding ZB, Ke AW, Gao DM, Yuan K, Zhou J, Fan J, Xi R and Gao Q
Department of Liver Surgery and Transplantation, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, and Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion (Ministry of Education), Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.
Journal of hepatology, 2018;69(1):89-98
ISSN: 1600-0641
PMID: 29551704 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second-most lethal primary liver cancer. Little is known about intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and its impact on ICC progression. We aimed to investigate the ITH of ICC in the hope of helping to develop new therapeutic strategies.Methods: We obtained 69 spatially distinct regions from six operable ICCs. Patient-derived primary cancer cells (PDPCs) were established for each region, followed by whole-exome sequencing (WES) and multi-level validation.Results: We observed widespread ITH for both somatic mutations and clonal architecture, shaped by multiple mechanisms, like clonal "illusion", parallel evolution and chromosome instability. A median of 60.3% of mutations were heterogeneous, among which 85% of the driver mutations were located on the branches of tumor phylogenetic trees. Many truncal and clonal driver mutations occurred in tumor suppressor genes, such as TP53, SMARCB1 and PBRM1 that are involved in DNA repair and chromatin-remodeling. Genome doubling occurred in most cases (5/6) after the accumulation of truncal mutations and was shared by all intratumoral sub-regions. In all cases, ongoing chromosomal instability is evident throughout the evolutionary trajectory of ICC. The recurrence of ICC1239 provided evidence to support the polyclonal metastatic seeding in ICC. The change of mutation landscape and internal diversity among subclones during metastasis, such as the loss of chemoresistance mediator, can be used for new treatment strategies. Targeted therapy against truncal alterations, such as IDH1, JAK1, and KRAS mutations and EGFR amplification, was developed in 5/6 patients.Conclusions: Integrated investigations of spatial ITH and clonal evolution may provide an important molecular foundation for enhanced understanding of tumorigenesis and progression in ICC.We applied multiregional whole-exome sequencing to investigate the evolution of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The results revealed that many factors, such as parallel evolution and chromosome instability, may participate and promote the branch diversity of ICC. Interestingly, in one patient with primary and recurrent metastatic tumors, we found evidence of polyclonal metastatic seeding, indicating that symbiotic communities of multiple clones existed and were maintained during metastasis. More realistically, some truncal alterations, such as IDH1, JAK1, and KRAS mutations and EGFR amplification, could be promising treatment targets in patients with ICC.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Table Information


This is a whole exome/systematic screen paper and the negatives for this paper should be inferred.


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows only high value (numeric) copy number data. Copy number segments are excluded if the total copy number and minor allele values are unknown.

Click here to include all copy number data. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)