GRCh38 · COSMIC v92


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Whole genome sequencing of melanomas in adolescent and young adults reveals distinct mutation landscapes and the potential role of germline variants in disease susceptibility.
Paper ID
Wilmott JS, Johansson PA, Newell F, Waddell N, Ferguson P, Quek C, Patch AM, Nones K, Shang P, Pritchard AL, Kazakoff S, Holmes O, Leonard C, Wood S, Xu Q, Saw RPM, Spillane AJ, Stretch JR, Shannon KF, Kefford RF, Menzies AM, Long GV, Thompson JF, Pearson JV, Mann GJ, Hayward NK and Scolyer RA
Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
International journal of cancer, 2018
ISSN: 1097-0215
PMID: 30178487 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
Cutaneous melanoma accounts for at least >10% of all cancers in adolescents and young adults (AYA, 15-30 years of age) in Western countries. To date, little is known about the correlations between germline variants and somatic mutations and mutation signatures in AYA melanoma patients that might explain why they have developed a cancer predominantly affecting those over 65 years of age. We performed genomic analysis of 50 AYA melanoma patients (onset 10-30 years, median 20); 25 underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS) of both tumour and germline DNA, exome data was retrieved from 12 TCGA AYA cases, and targeted DNA sequencing was conducted on 13 cases. The AYA cases were compared with WGS data from 121 adult cutaneous melanomas. Similar to mature adult cutaneous melanomas, AYA melanomas showed a high mutation burden and mutation signatures of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) damage. The frequencies of somatic mutations in BRAF (96%) and PTEN (36%) in the AYA WGS cohort were double the rates observed in adult melanomas (Q< 6.0x10<sup>-6</sup> and 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, AYA melanomas contained a higher proportion of non-UVR related mutation signatures than mature adult melanomas as a proportion of total mutation burden (P=2.0x10<sup>-4</sup> ). Interestingly, these non-UVR mutation signatures relate to APOBEC or mismatch repair pathways, and germline variants in related genes were observed in some of these cases. We conclude that AYA melanomas harbour some of the same molecular aberrations and mutagenic insults occurring in older adults, but in different proportions. Germline variants that may have conferred disease susceptibility correlated with somatic mutation signatures in a subset of AYA melanomas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Table Information


The negatives shown on this page are only from targeted gene screens, but does not include negatives from whole exome/systematic screens( these negatives should be inferred ).

Non-Mutant Genes Gene Id (COSG)


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows only high value (numeric) copy number data. Copy number segments are excluded if the total copy number and minor allele values are unknown.

Click here to include all copy number data. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)