GRCh38 · COSMIC v92


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

The genomic landscape of TERT promoter wildtype-IDH wildtype glioblastoma.
Paper ID
Diplas BH, He X, Brosnan-Cashman JA, Liu H, Chen LH, Wang Z, Moure CJ, Killela PJ, Loriaux DB, Lipp ES, Greer PK, Yang R, Rizzo AJ, Rodriguez FJ, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, Wang S, He Y, McLendon RE, Bigner DD, Jiao Y, Waitkus MS, Meeker AK and Yan H
The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, 27710, NC, USA.
Nature communications, 2018;9(1):2087
ISSN: 2041-1723
PMID: 29802247 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
The majority of glioblastomas can be classified into molecular subgroups based on mutations in the TERT promoter (TERTp) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH). These molecular subgroups utilize distinct genetic mechanisms of telomere maintenance, either TERTp mutation leading to telomerase activation or ATRX-mutation leading to an alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype (ALT). However, about 20% of glioblastomas lack alterations in TERTp and IDH. These tumors, designated TERTp<sup>WT</sup>-IDH<sup>WT</sup> glioblastomas, do not have well-established genetic biomarkers or defined mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Here we report the genetic landscape of TERTp<sup>WT</sup>-IDH<sup>WT</sup> glioblastoma and identify SMARCAL1 inactivating mutations as a novel genetic mechanism of ALT. Furthermore, we identify a novel mechanism of telomerase activation in glioblastomas that occurs via chromosomal rearrangements upstream of TERT. Collectively, our findings define novel molecular subgroups of glioblastoma, including a telomerase-positive subgroup driven by TERT-structural rearrangements (IDH<sup>WT</sup>-TERT<sup>SV</sup>), and an ALT-positive subgroup (IDH<sup>WT</sup>-ALT) with mutations in ATRX or SMARCAL1.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Table Information


The negatives shown on this page are only from targeted gene screens, but does not include negatives from whole exome/systematic screens( these negatives should be inferred ).

Non-Mutant Genes Gene Id (COSG)


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows only high value (numeric) copy number data. Copy number segments are excluded if the total copy number and minor allele values are unknown.

Click here to include all copy number data. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)