GRCh38 · COSMIC v98


This section shows a summary for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Multiregional sequencing reveals genomic alterations and clonal dynamics in primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus.
Paper ID
Li J, Yan S, Liu Z, Zhou Y, Pan Y, Yuan W, Liu M, Tan Q, Tian G, Dong B, Cai H, Wu N and Ke Y
Genetics lab, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute.
Cancer research, 2017
ISSN: 1538-7445
PMID: 28972077 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME) is a rare and aggressive disease with high tendency of metastasis. To characterize the genetic basis and intra-tumor heterogeneity of PMME, we performed multiregion exome sequencing and whole genome SNP array genotyping of 12 samples obtained from a PMME patient. High intra-tumor heterogeneity was observed in both somatic mutation and copy number alteration levels. Nine geographically separate samples including two normal samples were clonally related and followed a branched evolution model. Most putative oncogenic drivers such as BRAF and KRAS mutations as well as CDKN2A biallelic inactivation were observed in trunk clones, whereas clinically actionable mutations such as PIK3CA and JAK1 mutations were detected in branch clones. Ancestor tumor clones evolved into three subclonal clades: clade1 fostered metastatic subclones that carried metastatic features of PIK3CA and ARHGAP26 point mutations as well as chr13 arm-level deletion, clade2 owned branch-specific JAK1 mutations and PTEN deletion, and clade3 was found in two vertical distribution samples below the primary tumor area, highlighting the fact that it is possible for PMME to disseminate by the submucosal longitudinal lymphatic route at an early stage of metastasis. These findings facilitate interpretation of the genetic essence of this rare melanoma subtype as well as the pattern of cancer evolution, thus reinforcing the therapeutic challenges associated with PMME.
Paper Status