GRCh38 · COSMIC v92


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Genomic characterization of tobacco/nut chewing HPV-negative early stage tongue tumors identify MMP10 asa candidate to predict metastases.
Paper ID
Upadhyay P, Gardi N, Desai S, Chandrani P, Joshi A, Dharavath B, Arora P, Bal M, Nair S and Dutt A
Integrated Genomics Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai 410210, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094, India.
Oral oncology, 2017;73:56-64
ISSN: 1879-0593
PMID: 28939077 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
Objectives: Nodal metastases status among early stage tongue squamous cell cancer patients plays a decisive role in the choice of treatment, wherein about 70% patients can be spared from surgery with an accurate prediction of negative pathological lymph node status. This underscores an unmet need for prognostic biomarkers to stratify the patients who are likely to develop metastases.We performed high throughput sequencing of fifty four samples derived from HPV negative early stage tongue cancer patients habitual of chewing betel nuts, areca nuts, lime or tobacco using whole exome (n=47) and transcriptome (n=17) sequencing that were analyzed using in-house computational tools. Additionally, gene expression meta-analyses were carried out for 253 tongue cancer samples. The candidate genes were validated using qPCR and immuno-histochemical analysis in an extended set of 50 early primary tongue cancer samples.Somatic analysis revealed a classical tobacco mutational signature C:G>A:T transversion in 53% patients that were mutated in TP53, NOTCH1, CDKN2A, HRAS, USP6, PIK3CA, CASP8, FAT1, APC, and JAK1. Similarly, significant gains at genomic locus 11q13.3 (CCND1, FGF19, ORAOV1, FADD), 5p15.33 (SHANK2, MMP16, TERT), and 8q24.3 (BOP1); and, losses at 5q22.2 (APC), 6q25.3 (GTF2H2) and 5q13.2 (SMN1) were observed in these samples. Furthermore, an integrated gene-expression analysis of 253 tongue tumors suggested an upregulation of metastases-related pathways and over-expression of MMP10 in 48% tumors that may be crucial to predict nodal metastases in early tongue cancer patients. In overall, we present the first descriptive portrait of somatic alterations underlying the genome of tobacco/nut chewing HPV-negative early tongue cancer, and identify MMP10 asa potential prognostic biomarker to stratify those likely to develop metastases.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Table Information


This is a whole exome/systematic screen paper and the negatives for this paper should be inferred.


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows only high value (numeric) copy number data. Copy number segments are excluded if the total copy number and minor allele values are unknown.

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Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)