GRCh38 · COSMIC v87


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Genetic and epigenetic stability of oligodendrogliomas at recurrence.
Paper ID
Aihara K, Mukasa A, Nagae G, Nomura M, Yamamoto S, Ueda H, Tatsuno K, Shibahara J, Takahashi M, Momose T, Tanaka S, Takayanagi S, Yanagisawa S, Nejo T, Takahashi S, Omata M, Otani R, Saito K, Narita Y, Nagane M, Nishikawa R, Ueki K, Aburatani H and Saito N
Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.
Acta neuropathologica communications 2017;5(1):18
Among diffuse gliomas, oligodendrogliomas show relatively better prognosis, respond well to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and seldom progress to very aggressive tumors. To elucidate the genetic and epigenetic background for such behavior and tumor evolution during tumor relapse, we comparatively analyzed 12 pairs of primary and recurrent oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q-codeletion. Initial treatment for these patients was mostly chemotherapy alone. Temozolomide was used for 3, and procarbazine, nimustine and vincristine (PAV chemotherapy) were used for 7 patients. World Health Organization histological grade at recurrence was mostly stable; it was increased in 2, the same in 9, and decreased in 1 cases. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated that the rate of shared mutation between the primary and recurrent tumors was relatively low, ranging from 3.2-57.9% (average, 33.3%), indicating a branched evolutionary pattern. The trunk alterations that existed throughout the course were restricted to IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q-codeletion, and TERT promoter mutation, and mutation of the known candidate tumor suppressor genes CIC and FUBP1 were not consistently observed between primary and recurrent tumors. Multiple sampling from different regions within a tumor showed marked intratumoral heterogeneity. Notably, in general, the number of mutations was not significantly different after recurrence, remaining under 100, and no hypermutator phenotype was observed. FUBP1 mutation, loss of chr. 9p21, and TCF12 mutation were among a few recurrent de novo alterations that were found at recurrence, indicating that these events were clonally selected at recurrence but were not enough to enhance malignancy. Genome-wide methylation status, measured by Illumina 450 K arrays, was stable between recurrence and the primary tumor. In summary, although oligodendroglioma displays marked mutational heterogeneity, histological malignant transformation accompanying events such as considerable increase in mutation number and epigenetic profile change were not observed at recurrence, indicating that noticeable temporal and spatial genetic heterogeneity in oligodendrogliomas does not result in rapid tumor progression.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Table Information


This is a whole exome/systematic screen paper and the negatives for this paper should be inferred.


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows only high value (numeric) copy number data. Copy number segments are excluded if the total copy number and minor allele values are unknown.

Click here to include all copy number data. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)