GRCh38 · COSMIC v92


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Elucidating Genomic Characteristics of Lung Cancer Progression from In Situ to Invasive Adenocarcinoma.
Paper ID
Vinayanuwattikun C, Le Calvez-Kelm F, Abedi-Ardekani B, Zaridze D, Mukeria A, Voegele C, Vallée M, Purnomosari D, Forey N, Durand G, Byrnes G, Mckay J, Brennan P and Scelo G
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
Scientific reports, 2016;6:31628
ISSN: 2045-2322
PMID: 27545006 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
To examine the diversity of somatic alterations and clonal evolution according to aggressiveness of disease, nineteen tumor-blood pairs of 'formerly bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma (BAC)' which had been reclassified into preinvasive lesion (adenocarcinoma in situ; AIS), focal invasive lesion (minimally invasive adenocarcinoma; MIA), and invasive lesion (lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma; LPA and non-lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma; non-LPA) according to IASLC/ATS/ERS 2011 classification were explored by whole exome sequencing. Several distinct somatic alterations were observed compare to the lung adenocarcinoma study from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). There were higher numbers of tumors with significant APOBEC mutation fold enrichment (73% vs. 58% TCGA). The frequency of KRAS mutations was lower in our study (5% vs. 32% TCGA), while a higher number of mutations of RNA-splicing genes, RBM10 and U2AF1, were found (37% vs. 11% TCGA). We found neither mutational pattern nor somatic copy number alterations that were specific to AIS/MIA. We demonstrated that clonal cell fraction was the only distinctive feature that discriminated LPA/non-LPA from AIS/MIA. The broad range of clonal frequency signified a more branched clonal evolution at the time of diagnosis. Assessment of tumor clonal cell fraction might provide critical information for individualized therapy as a prognostic factor, however this needs further study.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Table Information


This is a whole exome/systematic screen paper and the negatives for this paper should be inferred.


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows only high value (numeric) copy number data. Copy number segments are excluded if the total copy number and minor allele values are unknown.

Click here to include all copy number data. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)