GRCh38 · COSMIC v92


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Molecular Mechanisms of Resistance to First- and Second-Generation ALK Inhibitors in ALK-Rearranged Lung Cancer.
Paper ID
Gainor JF, Dardaei L, Yoda S, Friboulet L, Leshchiner I, Katayama R, Dagogo-Jack I, Gadgeel S, Schultz K, Singh M, Chin E, Parks M, Lee D, DiCecca RH, Lockerman E, Huynh T, Logan J, Ritterhouse LL, Le LP, Muniappan A, Digumarthy S, Channick C, Keyes C, Getz G, Dias-Santagata D, Heist RS, Lennerz J, Sequist LV, Benes CH, Iafrate AJ, Mino-Kenudson M, Engelman JA and Shaw AT
Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
Cancer discovery, 2016
ISSN: 2159-8290
PMID: 27432227 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
Advanced, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lung cancer is currently treated with the first-generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib followed by more potent, second-generation ALK inhibitors (e.g., ceritinib and alectinib) upon progression. Second-generation inhibitors are generally effective even in the absence of crizotinib-resistant ALK mutations, likely reflecting incomplete inhibition of ALK by crizotinib in many cases. Herein, we analyzed 103 repeat biopsies from ALK-positive patients progressing on various ALK inhibitors. We find that each ALK inhibitor is associated with a distinct spectrum of ALK resistance mutations and that the frequency of one mutation, ALK(G1202R), increases significantly after treatment with second-generation agents. To investigate strategies to overcome resistance to second-generation ALK inhibitors, we examine the activity of the third-generation ALK inhibitor lorlatinib in a series of ceritinib-resistant, patient-derived cell lines, and observe that the presence of ALK resistance mutations is highly predictive for sensitivity to lorlatinib, whereas those cell lines without ALK mutations are resistant.Significance: Secondary ALK mutations are a common resistance mechanism to second-generation ALK inhibitors and predict for sensitivity to the third-generation ALK inhibitor lorlatinib. These findings highlight the importance of repeat biopsies and genotyping following disease progression on targeted therapies, particularly second-generation ALK inhibitors. Cancer Discov; 6(10); 1-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Qiao and Lovly, p. 1084.
Paper Status