GRCh38 · COSMIC v92


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

The Distinctive Mutational Spectra of Polyomavirus-Negative Merkel Cell Carcinoma.
Paper ID
Harms PW, Vats P, Verhaegen ME, Robinson DR, Wu YM, Dhanasekaran SM, Palanisamy N, Siddiqui J, Cao X, Su F, Wang R, Xiao H, Kunju LP, Mehra R, Tomlins SA, Fullen DR, Bichakjian CK, Johnson TM, Dlugosz AA and Chinnaiyan AM
Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Cancer research, 2015;75(18):3720-7
ISSN: 1538-7445
PMID: 26238782 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) may contribute to tumorigenesis in a subset of tumors via inhibition of tumor suppressors such as retinoblastoma (RB1) by mutated viral T antigens, but the molecular pathogenesis of MCPyV-negative MCC is largely unexplored. Through our MI-ONCOSEQ precision oncology study, we performed integrative sequencing on two cases of MCPyV-negative MCC, as well as a validation cohort of 14 additional MCC cases (n = 16). In addition to previously identified mutations in TP53, RB1, and PIK3CA, we discovered activating mutations of oncogenes, including HRAS and loss-of-function mutations in PRUNE2 and NOTCH family genes in MCPyV-negative MCC. MCPyV-negative tumors also displayed high overall mutation burden (10.09 ± 2.32 mutations/Mb) and were characterized by a prominent UV-signature pattern with C > T transitions comprising 85% of mutations. In contrast, mutation burden was low in MCPyV-positive tumors (0.40 ± 0.09 mutations/Mb) and lacked a UV signature. These findings suggest a potential ontologic dichotomy in MCC, characterized by either viral-dependent or UV-dependent tumorigenic pathways.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Table Information


This is a whole exome/systematic screen paper and the negatives for this paper should be inferred.


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows only high value (numeric) copy number data. Copy number segments are excluded if the total copy number and minor allele values are unknown.

Click here to include all copy number data. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)