GRCh38 · COSMIC v91


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Patient-specific molecular alterations are associated with metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer progressing under tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.
Paper ID
Dietz S, Sültmann H, Du Y, Reisinger E, Riediger AL, Volckmar AL, Stenzinger A, Schlesner M, Jäger D, Hohenfellner M, Duensing S, Grüllich C and Pahernik S
Cancer Genome Research Group, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany.
Oncotarget, 2017;8(43):74049-74057
ISSN: 1949-2553
PMID: 29088767 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
The availability of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) during the past ten years has led to improved response and overall survival of patients suffering from metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, most of these tumors will eventually progress due to resistance evolving under therapy. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether molecular alterations in ccRCC tissues sampled over the course of the disease might be suggestive of potential therapies. We performed whole exome sequencing of nine samples from four patients in the MORE (Molecular Renal Cancer Evolution) trial. We analyzed the mutational patterns in the tissues at baseline and compared them to those detectable in biopsy samples after progression under TKI therapy. We found limited genetic concordance between primary and secondary tumor sites with private mutations in FLT4, MTOR, ITGA5, SETD2, PBRM1, and BRCA1 on progression. One patient who showed an increased mutational load in the metastasis responded to nivolumab treatment. Our data provide evidence for clonal evolution and diverse pathways leading to acquired TKI resistance of ccRCC. Acquired resistance to TKI in metastatic ccRCC is due to intra-tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution of resistant subclones. Mutations occurring under progression might be informative for alternative targeted therapies.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Table Information


This is a whole exome/systematic screen paper and the negatives for this paper should be inferred.


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows all copy number data. This includes non-numeric data with descriptive definitions of gain/loss.

To Include only high value (numeric) copy number data, please click here. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)