GRCh37 · COSMIC v91


This section shows a general overview of information for the selected study (COSU identifier) or publication (COSP identifier). Studies may have been performed by the Sanger Institute Cancer Genome Project, or imported from the ICGC/TCGA. You can see more information on the help pages.

Multiregional sequencing reveals genomic alterations and clonal dynamics in primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus.
Paper ID
Li J, Yan S, Liu Z, Zhou Y, Pan Y, Yuan W, Liu M, Tan Q, Tian G, Dong B, Cai H, Wu N and Ke Y
Genetics lab, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute.
Cancer research, 2017
ISSN: 1538-7445
PMID: 28972077 (view at PubMed or Europe PMC)
Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME) is a rare and aggressive disease with high tendency of metastasis. To characterize the genetic basis and intra-tumor heterogeneity of PMME, we performed multiregion exome sequencing and whole genome SNP array genotyping of 12 samples obtained from a PMME patient. High intra-tumor heterogeneity was observed in both somatic mutation and copy number alteration levels. Nine geographically separate samples including two normal samples were clonally related and followed a branched evolution model. Most putative oncogenic drivers such as BRAF and KRAS mutations as well as CDKN2A biallelic inactivation were observed in trunk clones, whereas clinically actionable mutations such as PIK3CA and JAK1 mutations were detected in branch clones. Ancestor tumor clones evolved into three subclonal clades: clade1 fostered metastatic subclones that carried metastatic features of PIK3CA and ARHGAP26 point mutations as well as chr13 arm-level deletion, clade2 owned branch-specific JAK1 mutations and PTEN deletion, and clade3 was found in two vertical distribution samples below the primary tumor area, highlighting the fact that it is possible for PMME to disseminate by the submucosal longitudinal lymphatic route at an early stage of metastasis. These findings facilitate interpretation of the genetic essence of this rare melanoma subtype as well as the pattern of cancer evolution, thus reinforcing the therapeutic challenges associated with PMME.
Paper Status
Genes Analysed
Mutated Samples
Total No. of Samples

Mutation Matrix

This section shows the correlation plot between the top 20 genes and samples. There is more information in our help pages.


This table shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]
Genes Mutated Samples
This table shows genes without mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Table Information


This is a whole exome/systematic screen paper and the negatives for this paper should be inferred.


This tab shows genes with mutations in the selected study/paper [more details]

Genes Samples CDS Mutation AA Mutation

This tab shows non coding variant in the selected study/paper [more details]

Sample ID Sample Name ID NCV Annotation Zygosity Chromosome Genome start Genome stop Genome version Strand WT seq Mut seq FATHMM-MKL

This tab shows the gene expression and copy number variation data for this study [more details]

Table Information


The table currently shows all copy number data. This includes non-numeric data with descriptive definitions of gain/loss.

To Include only high value (numeric) copy number data, please click here. For more detailed information about copy number data and gain/loss definitions click here.

Sample Gene Expression Expr Level (Z-Score)

Over Expressed; Z-Score > 2.0

Under Expressed; Z-Score < -2.0

Normal; Z-Score within the range -2.0 to 2.0

CN Type Minor Allele Copy Number CN Segment Posn. Average Ploidy

1. N/A represents cases where the average ploidy value is not available( mostly ICGC samples). For some TCGA samples where the minor allele information is not available the average ploidy value could not be calculated.

2. For TCGA samples, the ASCAT algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.

3. For CGP samples, the PICNIC algorithm was used to calculate the average ploidy.


This table lists the samples in the selected study which have low/high methylation for each gene. [more details]

No data

This tab shows the fusion mutations observed in this sample [more details]

Gene Sample Name Id Sample(COSS) CDS Mutation Somatic status Zygosity Validated Type


This table shows mutated samples in the selected study/paper.

Sample Name Mutation Count

This table shows samples without mutations in the selected study/paper.

Non-Mutant Samples Sample Id (COSS)